Appendix of Footnotes

An ongoing compendium of accumulated footnotes.

  1. “Western” is not a place. It’s an attitude and a quality, the hallmarks of which are self-sufficiency, self-reliance, transformation, rugged independence, saltiness, a predisposition to risk and margins, and a DTF-type of commitment to one’s pursuits. [ SourceABOUT ]
  2. More than reliable transportation or a destination or extensive provisioning, any Explorer or Traveler (or Philosopher/Wanderer) worth his salt, requires only a quality wool blanket. Wool blankets can be fashioned into a jacket, as in a capote, or a cloak or cape. They can be used to wrap and therefore protect your valuables during travel as well as camouflage said valuables regrettably but necessarily left overnight in a car in a dimly lit motel parking lot. In place of an otherwise useless cotton towel pre-and-post hot spring, swim hole and river. As a bedroll, a napkin (albeit an oversized napkin), a pillow, a sack or makeshift bag, a brightly colored and nicely delineated picnic or lunch spot, for love-making, in defense against nearly feral or overly habituated animals, a lightweight saddle alternative, fire containment and for bivouacking and/or enhancing an otherwise primitive shelter. For wound care and poultices. Protection against the elements like dust, wind, direct sunlight, etc., as well as volatile and/or tempestuous weather. Insulation be it fixed, semi-permanent or temporary. To appear Period Correct if which period is the whole of the 1800s. A blanket and/or ad-hoc burrito-style mummy bag. And finally, if need be, they can be soaked in various nutrients, broths, herbs and tinctures for later oral or topical application. [ SourceABOUT ]
  3. Bakersfield was founded by Colonel Thomas Baker in 1869. It was located near (part of it “in”) one of the forks of the Kern River in reclaimed swampland. At one time called Kern Island, the city became known as Bakersfield after Colonel Baker’s residence and field, which was used as a stop over for travelers (called Baker’s Field). Located on the Los Angeles to Stockton Road, its close proximity to mountain passes to the west, south, and east would later make the city into a transportation hub. Bakersfield was originally incorporated in 1873.” [ SourceBROVET: OLD RIDGE ROAD ]
  4. The largest cut on the Old Ridge Route, Swede’s Cut is a 110 ft. excavation into a hillside creating a narrow rockfall-prone notch, completed in 1915. [ SourceBROVET: OLD RIDGE ROAD ]
  5. Corn-Dogging (v.) mid-2000s, Appalachian-American,  coined by Cole Maness. Figurative – the act of wasting (valuable) resources such as riding time, daylight, money, comfort zone(s), etc., in the pursuit of curious and/or seemingly pointless, regionally specific endeavors, e.g. swimming in a swimming hole, sitting on a decommissioned Sherman Tank cum War War II Monument such that the barrel appears to be your overly-large penis, listening to a taxidermist play the banjo and harmonica in a barn in West Virginia, throwing rocks at road signs for target practice and sport and possibly money, stopping at the Pendleton Round-Up (a rodeo in Pendleton, Oregon) in the middle of a 150-mile ride to eat/share the worlds largest corn dog. [ SourceBROVET: OLD RIDGE ROAD ]
  6. The Pacific Ring of Fire, or just Ring of Fire for short, is an area where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. In a 40,000 km (25,000 mi) horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts and/or plate movements. The Ring of Fire has 452 volcanoes and is home to over 75% of the world’s active and dormant volcanoes. It is sometimes called the circum-Pacific belt or the circum-Pacific seismic belt.” [ Source:  LAZARUS PITS ]
  7. Ovis dalli is a species of sheep native to northwestern North America, ranging from white to slate brown in color and having curved yellowish brown horns.” [ Source:  KILLING A MOUNTAIN CARIBOU ]
  8. At times, especially as we made our way through Western Colorado, we dragged, pushed and pulled (more than paddled) our packed rafts through less than eighteen inches of water. An eight mile section might take us several hours and force us to repeatedly get into and out of our rafts to navigate around larger rocks and past the wider sections where the flow was diminished and the river more shallow. [ Source:  ROWDY WATER ]
  9. The Mythical State of Jefferson is “A proposed U.S. state that would span the contiguous, mostly rural area of southern Oregonand northern California, where several attempts to secede from Oregon and California, respectively, have taken place in order to gain own statehood.” [ Source:  DFKWA: ROUGH AND READY CREEK — PT I ]
  10. Bushcraft is about surviving and thriving in the natural environment, and the acquisition of ancient skills and knowledge to do so. Bushcraft skills include; firecrafttrackinghunting, fishing, shelter building, the use of tools such as knives and axes, foraging, hand-carving wood, container construction from natural materials, rope and twine-making, and many others.” [ Source:  THE IDEAL WOODSMAN KNIFE ]
  11. “Through the livestock industry’s range of demands in the 21st century, a diversified, stress-free education has been developed to meet this variety of needs not only for the livestock but also the stock handlers.” http://www.theblackdog.com.au/ [ Source:  LOW STRESS CATTLE MANAGEMENT ]
  12. A body found in 2009 at first appeared to be Everett Ruess, but later examination of dental records proved otherwise. [ Source:  THE DISAPPEARANCE OF EVERETT RUESS ]
  13. After the Trojan War, Odysseus sets off for home, crossing the land of the Cyclops (the one-eyed giants). One of them, Polyphemus, takes Odysseus and his crew captive. Odysseus begs Polyphemus to let him and his crew go. When Polyphemus asks his name, Odysseus replies, “Nemo”. [ Source:  THE DISAPPEARANCE OF EVERETT RUESS ]
  14. Ungulates can more simply be described as hoofed mammals. [ Source:  MULE DEER RADIO COLLARING ]
  15. Landscape-scale conservation is a holistic approach to wilderness conservation that takes into account local economic and social considerations. [ Source:  MULE DEER RADIO COLLARING ]
  16. Despite running its course in California, the Smith River depends on tributaries throughout the Oregon Siskiyou Mountains. The river contains not a single dam along its entire length. [ Source:  DFKWA: BALDFACE CREEK — PT I ]
  17. The US Forest Service maintains a large number of gates—some temporary and some permanent—in order to limit access and slow the spread of Port Orford Cedar root disease, which can kill trees of any size and age. More information. [ Source:  DFKWA: BALDFACE CREEK — PT I ]
  18. "The DeHavilland Twin Otter (DHC-6) is a highly maneuverable, versatile aircraft which can be flown slowly (80-160 knots/150-300 km/hr)and in tight circles." NOAA [ Source: ARCTIC RED RIVER OUTFITTERS I ]
  19. When rams beat the hell out of their horns on various objects—including but not limited to other rams—the tips of their horns break off, leaving them "tipped." Untipped horns are a sign of a weak, passive and undesirable ram. [ SourceARCTIC RED RIVER OUTFITTERS I ]
  20. The Chrysler Town & Country is the pinnacle of rental minivans. [ SourceARCTIC RED RIVER OUTFITTERS I ]
  21. Tulies: The boondocks, in the middle of nowhere, out amongst it. [ SourceARCTIC RED RIVER OUTFITTERS I ]
  22. Riding for the Brand: committing not just to a paycheck but to your employer wholesale, their philosophy, their team. [ SourceARCTIC RED RIVER OUTFITTERS I ]
  23. It was during that Big Blowup that legendary forester and wildland firefighter Ed Pulaski saved 40 out of 45 men by forcing them to take cover in an abandoned mine. With the fire approaching he threatened to shoot any man who attempted to flee, knowing they would only perish in their attempt. He would later go on to invent the “Pulaski.” [ Source: FLAG POINT LOOKOUT ]
  24. In the movie Firestorm, former NFL All-Pro defensive end Howie Long—fresh off a supporting role in the nuclear-terrorism-aviation-heist-thriller Broken Arrowplays Jesse Graves, a long time smokejumper pitted against a group of escaped convicts hellbent on gaining their freedom. The convicts, in staging their escape, start an uncontrollable wildfire that threatens to destroy them all. This film currently has a 12% approval rating from Rotten Tomatoes. [ SourceFLAG POINT LOOKOUT ]
  25. heliograph is a wireless solar telegraph that signals by flashes of sunlight—generally using Morse code—reflected by a mirror. [ SourceFLAG POINT LOOKOUT ]
  26. DISCIPLINARY WALKS / TUNE-UPS: When a guide is tired of answering questions. When a hunter is rude to a guide. When a hunter repeatedly misbehaves. When a hunter acts entitled or lazy. When these things happen, a guide will knowingly walk the long and more difficult way home after an already difficult day. [ Source: ARCTIC RED RIVER OUTFITTERS II ]
  27. Ontogeny: the development of a life form. [ Source: LIVE ANIMAL CAPTURE CHECKLIST (STEP 4) ]
  28. Morphometrics: the quantitative analysis of form. [ Source: LIVE ANIMAL CAPTURE CHECKLIST (STEP 4) ]
  29. "The land which ultimately became the Mt. Shasta City Park was once part of the hunting grounds of the Wintun, Maidu, and Okwanuchu Indian tribes and was first crossed by explorers around 1841." Mt. Shasta Parks [ SourceHEADWATERS OF THE SACRAMENTO RIVER ]
  30. "Also known as fist pound, bro fist, spudding, fo’knucks Bust, pound dogg, props, or respect." Fist Bump, Wikipedia [ SourceThe Fist Bump ]
  31. "Dap is a form of handshake that has recently become popular in western cultures” Dap Greeting,Wikipedia. A video on the subject, The Dap Project, is a video documentary ca. 2006 from High School of Commerce, Springfield, MA. [ Source: The Fist Bump ]
  32. Before the seven continents we know today had their own identities, the landmass of Earth was all stuck together. [ SourceMINOR RELIGIONS OF THE MT. SHASTA REGION ]
  33. Many pictures of Mt. Shasta show a big lenticular cloud over the mountain. Usually they're created by super high winds, it's a vortexual cloud, and they look like big hats or a tall stack of pancakes. [ SourceMINOR RELIGIONS OF THE MT. SHASTA REGION ]
  34. "The world’s largest living history museum in Williamsburg, Virginia—the restored 18th-century capital of Britain’s largest, wealthiest, and most populous outpost of empire in the New World." Colonial Williamsburg [ Source: KNAPP CREEK (SWIMMING HOLE) ]
  35. The Hot Metal Bridge, Pittsburgh, PA: two sets of trusses on shared piers, 1174'1" total length, 48.4' height, built 1887. More information.[ SourceKNAPP CREEK (SWIMMING HOLE) ]
  36. Operated by the University of Arizona's science program, the Steward Observatory offers various learning opportunities and workshops to the public in addition to its higher education and research functions. [ SourceSARAH PLUMMER LEMMON & MATT HALL ]
  37. The Grand Canyon is one of CNN's Seven Natural Wonders of the World: 1) Grand Canyon 2) Great Barrier Reef 3) Harbor of Rio de Janeiro 4) Mount Everest 5) Aurora 6) Paricutin Volcano 7) Victoria Falls. [ Source: MATHER POINT (WP-SCENIC OVERLOOK) ]
  38. Cowboy Camping: deciding to forgo your shelter and sleep en plein air, underneath the stars. [ Source: KANGAROO LAKE ]
  39. At 93 years old, Glacier National Park Ranger Lyle Ruterbories is contemplating retirement from his seasonal position at Kintla Lake Campground, but isn't ready to make it official just yet. Ruterbories has worked as the  Kintla Lake Campground seasonal park ranger for the past 20 years and prior to that he was a volunteer campground host with his late wife Marge Ruterbories since the late 1980s. Kintla Lake Campground is the most remote frontcountry campground in Glacier National Park. Located in the northwest section of the park known as the North Fork, only a few miles from the Canadian border, visitors often come to Kintla Lake seeking solitude and recreational opportunities such as fishing or canoeing.Each week Ruterbories travels the rough and bumpy Inside North Fork Road from Polebridge to Kintla carrying food, water, and propane to the remote Kintla Ranger Station where there is no electricity, running water, or telephone available. The park ranger at Kintla Lake Campground must be skilled at rustic living, able to live and work independently, and possess a wide-range of skills to accommodate various resource and visitor needs. Daily duties include managing campground facilities, collecting fees, educating visitors on resource and park history topics, and conducting trail or lake patrol as time allows. National Park Service [ SourceLYLE RUTERBORIES, GLACIER NATIONAL PARK RANGER ]
  40. There is some debate about whether or not the hatchet technique was a reality, but the hypothesis states that the Allosaurus compensated for its relatively weak jaw by simply swinging its head, mouth open and teeth exposed, at its prey à la a hatchet. [ SourceALLOSAURUS VIA LEAN-TO ]
  41. On the subject of French Canadians in the Mountain West, Kirk Townsend, a naturalist accompanying a supply train to a rendezvous in 1834 provides the following description: “These people, with their obstreperous mirth, their whooping and howling, and quarreling, added to the mounted Indians, who are constantly dashing into and through our camp, yelling like fiends, the barking and baying of savage wolf-dogs, and the incessant cracking of rifles and carbines, render our camp a perfect bedlam. I am confined closely to the tent with illness, and am compelled all day to listen to the hiccoughing jargon of drunken traders, the sacre and foutre of Frenchmen run wild, and the swearing and screaming of our own men, who are scarcely less savage than the rest, being heated by the detestable liquor which circulates freely among them.” [ Source: FORT BRIDGER RENDEZVOUS ]
  42. Often called the "Daniel Boone of the Rockies," Fort Bridger's namesake Jim Bridger was one of the most storied figures in early American Wyoming history. [ SourceFORT BRIDGER RENDEZVOUS ]
  43. The Utah War was a conflict in 1857-58 between Mormon settlers of the Utah Territory and the United States. [ SourceFORT BRIDGER RENDEZVOUS ]